Virtual Theory: Integrating Cybersecurity into International Relations Theory

Existing theories of international relations (IR) have so far been unable to deal with the challenges presented by emerging forms of cyberattack. This article presents a way to integrate the kinds of cyberattack that were seen in the 2016 American presidential election into existing IR theories. Additionally, within the framework of structural realism, it introduces the concept of cyber soft balancing, including but not limited to information warfare, and argues that this will become a permanent feature of great power competition and conflict.

Gender Reports in Three Major Newspapers: Variations on the Same News

In Western society, gender equality is considered a basic human right; however, that goal seems far from being fulfilled. Just as language has the power to influence thoughts, the press has the power to influence public opinion. The media must take responsibility for the way it uses language. Comparison of specific stories about the same events from three main newspapers will reveal differences in reporting on gender and violence. Conceptual Metaphor Analysis will serve to frame the stories from the three newspapers selected: “The New York Times,” “The Guardian,” and “The Daily Telegraph.” As Roger Fowler lays bare the ideologies at work in newspaper language (Fowler 1991), this paper will analyze the use of stereotypes and unrelated information according to the thoughts to which they refer. Headline topics will be compared using Systemic Functional Grammar Methodology (Halliday and Hasan 1989). Contrasting reportage on the same story will show the differences in language and thus the frames and aims of their editors. Findings suggest “The Guardian” has a gender perspective offering a more responsible approach to gender news. Establishing a more equitable way of reporting on women and gender issues will lead to the positive outcome of more objective framing of the stories. Changing the words used to refer to violence will lead to a more respectful approach, as the times we live in demand.

Rethinking the Role of Public Incentives for Amateur Arts

It is considered that amateur artists perform or produce strictly for their own satisfaction and quite often that of other members of the local community, while making their living some other way (Elkington and Stebbins 2014). However, researchers have discovered that amateur art has significant social (Matarasso 1997), educational, cultural, and even economic impact (Bronner 2009). So who is responsible for financing amateur artists: state, region, municipality, or is it the third sector? Moreover, what are the most efficient public incentives to sustain social and economic effects in the long-term? The overall aim of this study has been to analyse public incentives for amateur arts and to assess their impact on the development of amateur art in the long-term. First, we look at social and economic impact of amateur arts, as well as arguments that can be used for justification of introducing public incentives to support amateur arts. Second, we briefly analyse fiscal measures, which can be applied to amateur arts in Europe. Third, we discuss in detail participation in amateur arts in Latvia and fiscal measures that are applied on a national and local level. Finally, we discuss the most efficient public incentives to sustain social and economic benefits in the long-term.