Nineteen of Disney’s animated feature films were randomly selected to be viewed and coded using the Moral Media Messages (MMM) scale. The scale includes ten moral messages: six positive messages and four negative messages. Paired observers were used for coding and reliability was confirmed. Based on previous research regarding prosocial and negative behaviors, it was hypothesized that Disney characters before 1990 would have a higher negative moral count than characters in after 1990 Disney films. Furthermore, the researchers proposed other hypotheses including differences among more negative and positive morals according to gender and SES. An additional hypothesis included that characters who are considered the protagonist would show more positive morals, whereas the antagonist would show more negative morals. The following results were obtained in the study: negative messages deception/ego and dissing/prejudice scores were significantly higher in films after 1990 than before. Upon examining genders, males were significantly higher in “threatening” messages than females. However, females were found to be significantly higher in “forgiving” messages than males. The following messages were found significant when looking at the character’s SES: perspective taking, nurture/affection, “kindness,” deception/ego, and dissing/prejudice. When examining the roles as a function of the ten messages, the following were found significant: perspective taking, “apology,” “forgiveness,” nurture/affection, “kindness,” “anger,” deception/ego, dissing/prejudice, and “threats.” Future research will address some of the limitations mentioned in the discussion.
This article aims to demonstrate that community-based service delivery protests in South Africa may be viewed as community reactions to local government decision-making processes rather than the outcomes of those decisions. Reasons for service delivery protests in literature range from unfulfilled government promises to the lack of inadequate services especially in poorly resourced areas where there is deprivation and inequality. However, evidence from research on service delivery protests in South Africa also point to an often nominally highlighted yet inadequately expounded reason: the lack of trust communities have in their local authorities’ decision-making processes. This article takes a transdisciplinary approach to participatory governance at the local government level by exploring psycho-sociological dimensions of public participation in local government. Using conceptual and empirical literature evidence on trust and procedural justice as well as South African community protest cases, the article finds that citizens may accept unfavourable outcomes if they perceive the processes as fair and their treatment as respectful and dignifying. The findings suggest that contingent on the trust environment, procedural justice plays an important role in a local community’s reactions to unfavourable service delivery outcomes. Reciprocally, these perceptions of unfair procedures have the capacity, over time, to break down trust where they exist. These findings have implications for strengthening participatory governance processes and expanding community access to and experience of local government decision-making. The article concludes that ensuring procedural justice in local government decision-making processes is a requirement for building community trust and minimizing community predispositions for service delivery protests in South Africa. The article provides recommendations for local government research and practice on procedural justice and community protests.
Small populations in isolated places have problems accessing healthcare. The reasons for this are well-explained. However, Australia has rarely considered a transdisciplinary approach, preferring to stay within the existing professional boundaries of education and practice. As the Australian government continues to relinquish its role as a direct service provider, a true transdisciplinary model is required. This article proposes highly trained, experienced allied health workers fulfil the roles of several professions. Implementation of a transdisciplinary approach to allied health services requires a significant shift in policy, funding, existing service delivery structures, and education and training. However, fewer changes are required in practice. All experienced allied health workers should be able to do a holistic assessment that encompasses physical, mental, emotional, and social wellbeing. Small populations will remain reliant on outreach and visiting services travelling from regional centres because they do not have the population mass to support a range of healthcare professionals or the potential to recruit 0.2 of a speech therapist, 0.3 of a physiotherapist, and 0.5 of a social worker. To change a system reliant on unavailable specialist professionals, a transdisciplinary solution is critical. The approach needed from policy, funding bodies, and service delivery organisations is outlined, but are practitioners up to the challenge?