Behind the High-stakes Testing Results: Hong Kong Children Report on Aspects of Their Schooling Experiences

In this article we explore East Asian students’ lives beyond performance in high-stakes testing regimes. We surveyed 123 P5 students (eleven years old) from one school in a low socioeconomic area of Hong Kong about what they liked doing at school. We linked these questions to others asking what they wished they could do more of, as well as if they felt their teachers and friends showed that they liked them and if they enjoyed school. The results showed that the majority of students reported that they both liked school (83%) and felt liked by their teachers and friends (81.3%). Further, the data showed that if students indicated that they liked an activity “a lot,” this was linked to their perception that their teachers and friends liked them. The top three items that the students wished they could do more of were using computers for learning (59.3%); playing sports (52.8%); and playing in a bigger play area (43.9%). Girls tended to like the school activities more than the boys.

Virtual Theory: Integrating Cybersecurity into International Relations Theory

Existing theories of international relations (IR) have so far been unable to deal with the challenges presented by emerging forms of cyberattack. This article presents a way to integrate the kinds of cyberattack that were seen in the 2016 American presidential election into existing IR theories. Additionally, within the framework of structural realism, it introduces the concept of cyber soft balancing, including but not limited to information warfare, and argues that this will become a permanent feature of great power competition and conflict.

Gender Reports in Three Major Newspapers: Variations on the Same News

In Western society, gender equality is considered a basic human right; however, that goal seems far from being fulfilled. Just as language has the power to influence thoughts, the press has the power to influence public opinion. The media must take responsibility for the way it uses language. Comparison of specific stories about the same events from three main newspapers will reveal differences in reporting on gender and violence. Conceptual Metaphor Analysis will serve to frame the stories from the three newspapers selected: “The New York Times,” “The Guardian,” and “The Daily Telegraph.” As Roger Fowler lays bare the ideologies at work in newspaper language (Fowler 1991), this paper will analyze the use of stereotypes and unrelated information according to the thoughts to which they refer. Headline topics will be compared using Systemic Functional Grammar Methodology (Halliday and Hasan 1989). Contrasting reportage on the same story will show the differences in language and thus the frames and aims of their editors. Findings suggest “The Guardian” has a gender perspective offering a more responsible approach to gender news. Establishing a more equitable way of reporting on women and gender issues will lead to the positive outcome of more objective framing of the stories. Changing the words used to refer to violence will lead to a more respectful approach, as the times we live in demand.